Rev. Heng Sure was ordained as a Buddhist monk in 1976. For the sake of world peace, he undertook an over six hundred mile pilgrimage from South Pasadena to Ukiah, repeatedly taking three steps and one bow to cover the entire journey. In the entire two years taken to make the pilgrimage, he observed a practice of total silence. Rev. Heng Sure has an M.A. in Oriental Languages from UC Berkeley, and a Ph.D. from the Graduate Theological Union in Berkeley. He serves as the Managing Director of the Berkeley Buddhist Monastery and has taught at the Graduate Theological Union, Bond University, and Dharma Realm Buddhist University. He lectures on the Avatamsaka Sutra and other sutras. He currently leads a team to translate the Avatamsaka Sutra. He is actively involved in interfaith dialogue and in the ongoing conversation between spirituality and technology.

Dr. Chris Wen-Chao Li received his masters and doctoral degrees in General Linguistics and Comparative Philology from Oxford University, where his research focused on Mandarin sound change and Chinese phonology. He is the author of A Diachronically-Motivated Segmental Phonology of Mandarin Chinese (New York: Peter Lang, 1999), The Routledge Course in Chinese Media Literacy (London: Routledge, 2016) and numerous scholarly treatises on language and translation. His translations of Chinese prose and poetry have appeared in Renditions (Hong Kong) and The Chinese Pen (Taipei), and Asia Pacific Translation and Intercultural Studies (London). His current research interests include sound change, language contact, diglossia, standardization, phonological translation, and domesticating translation strategies.



  1. Intratextual and Extratextual considerations in the translation commentaries of Xuan Zang and Zan Ning by Dr. Chris Wen-Chao Li


  1. Xuan Zang’s “Five Untranslatables”: A Modern Reassessment by Dr. Chris Wen-Chao Li
  2. Viewing Translation Through A Bodhisattva’s Skillful Speech by Reverend Heng Sure (Recording is unavailable)
  3. Translation as a Spiritual Practice by Reverend Heng Sure


  1. Translating the Analects of Confucius
  2. Translating Gāthā of Bodhisattva Juélín part 1
  3. Translating Gāthā of Bodhisattva Juélín part 2


  1. Sound Change and the Modern Chinese Pronunciation of Sanskrit Loanwords
  2. Towards a Reader-Oriented Conceptualization of Translation: Reader Response, Reception Theories, and Cultural Translation


  1. Literary Meaning in the Translation of Classical Texts
  2. Practicum: Translating Classical Chinese