The International Institute for the Translation of Buddhist Texts (IITBT) is a vibrant community engaged in the translation of Buddhist texts along with Buddhist practice, modeled after the translation assemblies led by master translators throughout Buddhist history.
When Buddhism first came to China from India, one of the most important tasks required for its establishment was the translation of the Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into Chinese. This work involved a great many people, such as the renowned monk National Master Kumarajiva (fifth century), who led an assembly of over 800 people to work on the translation of the Tripitaka (Buddhist canon) for over a decade. Because of the work of individuals such as these, nearly the entire Tripitaka of over a thousand texts exists to the present day in Chinese.
Emulating the translation assemblies of ancient times, the IITBT brings together talented individuals from many disciplines and cultures, in a collaborative endeavor to bring the Buddhist canon into English and other languages.
Certificate Program Overview
The Graduate Certificate in Buddhist Translation is an integrated two-semester program that combines translation from Chinese to English (or other languages) with study, practice, and service in a monastic setting. The Certificate Program is not a program focused on language learning per se. This Program is designed for students who wish to deepen their understanding of Buddhism through translation, improve their mastery of Buddhist canonical languages, and contribute to the effort of translating Buddhist texts.
Students will learn Buddhist concepts and thought, translation theories, the use of translation resources and tools, research skills, terminology management, and teamwork, while maintaining spiritual practices. The aim is to create accurate translations that capture the spirit and meaning of the source texts while being sensitive to the nuances in the source and target languages, including grammatical structure, idiomatic expressions, and linguistic connotations.
The Program will introduce students to the procedures of the Four Committees as established by Venerable Master Hsüan Hua and sustained by the Buddhist Text Translation Society (BTTS): (1) primary translation (direct translation from source to target language), (2) revision (bilingual checking for accuracy and coherency), (3) editing and polishing (creating a smooth and readable text in the target language), and (4) certification (verifying that the translation is consistent with the Buddha’s teachings).
IITBT/BTTS owns the copyright for all translation work produced by IITBT translation teams (which include Translation Program students). Hence, individuals may not claim ownership or credit for these works of collaborative translation. And criteria for earning a Graduate Certificate does not include any guarantee that the student’s work will be published.
Upon completion of the Graduate Certificate in Buddhist Translation, students will receive a formal certificate of completion. While anyone can apply to the Certificate Program, this Certificate Program can also be regarded as an optional extra component of the DRBU MA in Buddhist Classics. DRBU MA students who enroll in the Certificate Program in their third year will earn a degree of Master of Arts in Buddhist Classics with the titles of their translation projects printed on their transcripts/diplomas.
The IITBT Certificate Program in Buddhist Translation is innovative and experimental. Formal DRBU academic credit may not be available in its pilot stage of operation. A formal certificate will be conferred once the program review process is completed.
II. Admission Requirements
While students’ translation work will be evaluated on an individual basis, a large portion of the translation work produced within this Program will be done collaboratively by groups engaged in shared inquiry. The collaborative nature of group translation does not require all individuals to meet the same qualifications; rather, we look out for those who contribute special skills and talents to complement the strengths of the group. We also look for students who demonstrate good interpersonal and teamwork skills.
The Graduate Certificate in Buddhist Translation is a graduate level program. Before applying, applicants need to have at least a undergraduate degree or the equivalent, and demonstrate graduate level capacity in reading and writing. In order to produce high quality translation that accurately conveys the meanings of the source text while also appealing to the modern mind, students applying to this Program should meet at least three of the following prerequisites, as identified by the Diagnostic Test:
1. A high level of proficiency in the English language, including sensitivity to cultural nuances.
2. At least one year of Classical Chinese, or ability to read Buddhist Chinese texts (for students whose native language is not Chinese).
3. Knowledge of basic Buddhist philosophy and concepts.
4. Competency in fields such as western philosophy and psychology (as these can inform one’s translations and make them convincing to the western modern psyche)
Those skilled in other languages and interested in Buddhist translation may inquire about other opportunities at IITBT.
All applicants are required to take a timed, 120 minute Diagnostic Test.
Non-native English Speakers
Native or Near-native English Speakers
Section I – Essays (40%)
English 280-330 words
English 330-380 words
Section II – Translation/Editing (40%)
Chinese → English
English → Chinese
Section III – Abstract (20%)
English text to be summarized in your native language
Section IV – Buddhist Knowledge (20%)
(basic Buddhist concepts test)
III. Program Outcomes, Goals, and Curriculum
Program Learning Outcomes (PLO)
1. Exercise ethical sensibility.
2. Cultivate a flexibility of mind to consider and synthesize multiple perspectives and ideas.
3. Appreciate and apply major Buddhist methods and practices.
4. Explain insights gained from close reading and translation of texts and their contemporary implications for the personal, the social, and the natural worlds.
5. Create clear, accurate, nuanced translations adapted to various audiences.
The Graduate Certificate in Buddhist Translation will enable students to:
- Deepen their understanding of Buddhism through the practice of translation.
- Use key resources such as dictionaries, the electronic Tripitaka, and online databases.
- Develop skills in one or more of the various aspects of the translation process: primary translation, revision, editing and polishing.
- Have first-hand experience with various forms of spiritual practices.
- Acquire experience in both individual and team-based translation and decision-making.
The following course descriptions outline basic course requirements only. More detailed information regarding elective coursework and other course requirements will be available during individual consultations.
The requirements need to be completed within two consecutive semesters. The program’s objective is to give students a framework from which they develop skills in translation and deeper understanding of Buddhist concepts.
|Translating the Dharma: Theories, Ethics, and Skills||3||3 (2hrs in classroom;|
3 (3 hrs/wk)
|Hermeneutics of Self-Transformation||5|
5 (2hrs in classroom;
|Translation Workshop||2||2 (6 hrs/wk)|
13 (25 hrs/wk)
* 9hrs lab:
Community Service (3 hrs)
Practices (6 hrs): 3 hours of ceremonial recitation + 3 hours of meditation
Translating the Dharma: Theories, Ethics, and Skills TRNC 11 / TRNC 12
This course introduces basic translation theories and ethics, as well as research skills and resources, terminology management, and teamwork skills integrating the BTTS Four Committee process. This course will also introduce students to selected contemporary scholarship in translation studies. Students will be invited to consider how the Dharma might be translated into different disciplines. They will be encouraged to move away from meaning-based linguistic equivalence to produce translations that reach out to the modern mind and serve as catalysts for transformation. In the lab component, students will receive guidance and work closely with their advisors on individual translation projects, applying principles and skills of interpretation and translation learned in this course and/or in the Hermeneutics courses of the DRBU MA program. An individual translation project is required to complete this program. (read syllabus)
Reading Seminar TRNC 21 / TRNC 22
This course is designed to build on students’ knowledge of the grammatical and syntactic structure of both source and target languages, through close reading and careful analysis of selected passages from Chinese classics and Buddhist texts in different genres. In the Seminar, students will read, interpret, and translate selected texts. They will discuss the vocabulary and sentence structures of primary sources. They will also develop appreciation for texts through reading assigned and self-selected materials, guided by explanations and in-depth discussion to clarify the meaning and significance of text passages when needed. The Reading Seminar allows students to engage in shared inquiry as they study primary sources both in their source language as well as in multiple existing translations. (read syllabus)
Hermeneutics of Self TRNC 31/ TRNC32
This course is designed to introduce students to the more subjective dimension of Buddhist translation—how understanding and interpreting is determined by the presuppositions and beliefs of the interpreter. Hermeneutics of Self is concerned with determining the psychological, emotional, and mental conditions that make both understanding and misunderstanding possible. Through the study of biographies and autobiographical records of eminent Buddhist translator-practitioners, personal diaries, journals, poetry, and lived-encounters we explore how in their effort to produce accurate translations of texts, they also struggled to uncover and transform the unexamined biases and predispositions that might cloud their work.
As a corollary to translation work and close reading of primary texts, students will engage in contemplative practice and self-cultivation exercises embedded and advocated in the texts they are translating, and mindful service emulating the translators whose lives they are studying. This hermeneutical approach, where intellectual inquiry is enhanced through meditative exercises, aims to give students a holistic appreciation of what it means to be a translator-practitioner as understood and derived from Buddhist sources. The insights acquired through these readings along with direct laboratory experience provide a study-practice hermeneutical dimension that students may reference in their translation work in the program. (read syllabus)
Translation Workshop TRNC 41 / TRNC 42
Inspired by the Buddhist translation assemblies held in imperial China, the Translation Workshop is a laboratory for live translation practice in a group setting. Under the supervision of instructors, students work in teams with more experienced translators in a process of primary translation, bilingual review, and editing of selected canonical texts. During workshop, students will practice doing research and building terminology lists, including alternative translations, which the entire class will standardize to ensure consistency of translation. Students will be evaluated both on their individual translation capacity as well as on their development of interpersonal skills and team spirit.
IV. Faculty and Staff (listed alphabetically by their first names):
Brenda Li recently earned an MA in Buddhist Classics at DRBU and is an IITBT Fellow. She completed her BA in Neuroscience and Behavior at Wesleyan University. Prior to coming to DRBU, she worked in mental health as a counselor and case manager. While working at a psychiatric crisis clinic, she had experience offering interpretation services for Spanish and Mandarin speakers. She is excited by the process of translating meaning across people and cultures.
Bhikshuni Heng Yi, Director of IITBT, will serve as Certificate Program Administrator and faculty of record for Translation Workshop. She will oversee group translation work. Read more…
Bhikshuni Heng Yin, Assistant Director of IITBT, grew up in Austin, Texas. While a graduate student in Computer Science at the University of Texas at Austin, her encounter with Master Hua and his disciples inspired her to transfer to Dharma Realm Buddhist University. Shortly thereafter she became a monastic disciple under Master Hua. Living at the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas, she had the opportunity to help translate and publish Buddhist texts, to serve as principal at Instilling Goodness and Developing Virtue Schools, and to teach at Dharma Realm Buddhist University. She will advise students on their individual translation projects.
Justin Howe recently earned an MA in Buddhist Classics at DRBU and is an IITBT Fellow. He has a BA in Theater from Lehigh University. Following his undergraduate studies, he made theater for several years in Philadelphia, PA. He is the author of two plays. Justin is grateful for the opportunity to put his literary experience in the service of Master Hsuan Hua’s vows to translate the Dharma into every language. For the last year, he has helped BTTS on several English-language translation projects. He also served as a TA for the 2018 Translation Seminar. He looks forward to many more translation projects in the future!
Yang Liu, an IITBT Fellow, holds a B.M. in Clinical Medicine from Beijing University Medical Center, and a M.S. in Biostatistics from University of Illinois at Chicago. She has worked on various translation projects for the Buddhist Text Translation Society, including the Lotus Sutra, the Avatamasaka Sutra, Song of Enlightenment, and Words of Wisdom. She teaches Chinese in Instilling Goodness Elementary School and Developing Virtue Secondary School at the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas.
Bhikshuni Heng Chih, Professor Emerita of DRBU, taught Buddhist philosophy at Bond University, Gold Coast, Australia, for six years. She is a founding member of the Buddhist Text Translation Society (BTTS) and since its inception in 1971 has served on all its four committees, helping prepare English publications of Buddhist texts and Master Hua’s commentaries on Mahayana Sutras and Shastras. She is one of the world’s most senior Buddhist nuns and in her decades of service has helped train many others in the monastic way of life. Read more…
Martin Verhoeven, Ex Officio is Professor of Buddhist Classics and Dean of Academics at DRBU, with a Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and past teaching or lecturing experience at Stanford, UC Berkeley, and the Graduate Theological Union. Also a longtime disciple of the Venerable Master Hsuan Hua. Read more...
Michael Nylan is Professor of History at the University of California, Berkeley. She is one of the foremost historians today working on early China and one of the world’s leading scholars of pre-modern China. Her interests span aesthetic theories and material culture, intellectual history and religious beliefs, with an emphasis on the sociopolitical context. She has published sixteen books, including: The Chinese Pleasure Book; Chang’an 26 BCE: An Augustan Age in China?; Lives of Confucius; Yang Xiong and the Pleasures of Reading and Classical Learning; and Exemplary Figures: a complete translation of Yang Xiong’s Fayan. Both in her writing and her teaching, she has imparted the art and joy of translation to her students. Prof. Nylan will be a guest lecturer for Reading Seminar.
Nipun Mehta is the founder of ServiceSpace.org -- an incubator of projects that support a gift culture. In his mid-twenties, Nipun quit his job to become a "full time volunteer" and over the last 15 years, his work has reached millions, attracted more than 500 thousand volunteers, and mushroomed into numerous projects like DailyGood, Awakin Circles, and Karma Kitchen. President Obama appointed him on a council for social change, Dalai Lama recognized him as an “Unsung Hero of Compassion”, and Germany’s OOOM magazine named him Top 100 Most Inspiring People of 2018. In order to bring new ideas into mainstream vernacular and facilitate a paradigm shift, Service Space has created or popularized new words and phrases, such as laddership, giftivism, gift-ecology, social permaculture, do nothing generosity, compassion quotient, and race to the bottom. Service Space’s creative influence on language and culture can also give inspiration to Buddhist translation.
Raymond T. Yeh is one of the Honorary Chancellors of DRBU. Dr. Yeh taught at five universities and was chairman of the Computer Science department at both University of Texas at Austin and University of Maryland. He has published eight technical books, two business books, and more than 120 technical papers. He was the founding editor-in-chief of the IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering and founder of the IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). He also co-founded two software companies and had been a management consultant to several nations and many companies. Dr. Yeh will be a guest lecturer for Translating the Dharma: Theories, Ethics, and Skills.
Robert E. Buswell, distinguished Professor of Buddhist Studies in the UCLA Department of Asian Languages and Cultures, is the Irving and Jean Stone Chair in Humanities at UCLA, and the founding director of the university’s Center for Buddhist Studies and Center for Korean Studies. From 2009-2011, he served concurrently as founding director of the Dongguk Institute for Buddhist Studies Research (Pulgyo Haksurwon) at Dongguk University in Seoul, Korea.
He is widely considered to be the premier Western scholar on Korean Buddhism and one of the top specialists on the East Asian Zen tradition. Buswell also served as editor-in-chief of the two-volume Encyclopedia of Buddhism (Macmillan Reference, 2004), and coeditor (with Donald S. Lopez, Jr.) of the one-million word Dictionary of Buddhism.
V. Campus Life & Requirements
- Students are not required to live on campus. Students living in dormitories should abide by the rules outlined in the “Rules of Residence” described on page 68 of University Catalog.
- Students are expected to follow the DRBU Code of Conduct and the Five Precepts (not killing, not stealing, no inappropriate sexual behavior, no lying, and no intoxicants or illegal substances) on campus and conduct themselves in an appropriate manner in the surrounding communities. Details outlined in the “Student Code of Conduct” on page 67 of the University Catalog will also apply.
- Students are eligible for all library services and all activities organized by Office of Campus Life.
Application must be submitted by July 21, 2020. Late application will be considered only under special circumstances and with approval from Program Director. Once the application is received and processed, students will receive instruction via email to log on and submit the online Early Diagnostic Test for evaluation. All admitted students are required to attend the 7-day Seminar on Reading and Translating Buddhist Texts. Therefore, please apply early to allow us enough time to process your application. For more information and other inquiries, please contact: email@example.com
VII. Tuition and Fees
Total for Program 2020-2021 (two 15 wk - semesters)
|Room and Board Fees||$7,000|
Total Direct Cost
Financial aid (scholarship and/or grant) is available. Eligible applicants are welcome to apply. Program students are not required to live on campus. Payment of room and board fees entitles the student to the use of a double room and 21 meals per week for the duration of the semester. Tuition and room and board fees are refundable. For more information, refer to the refund policy on page 51 of the University Catalog.
Estimated Other Expenses
In addition to tuition and room and board fees, there are other expenses that a student and his or her family will need to plan for. These include:
Books and Supplies
The average cost for books and supplies is approximately $300 per year.
Personal Incidental Expenses
This category covers routine expenses that will be incurred during the school year for things such as laundry, personal items, and entertainment. We estimate $500 to be a reasonable amount for these expenses during the school year.
Students may travel home during the school year. The expense of traveling will vary according to the location of the student’s home and the mode of transportation. It is reasonable to assume travel expenses of $500 for students from within California and $1,000 for students from other states.
Students should factor in the cost of basic medical insurance as part of their total expenses. DRBU does not provide medical insurance. Students are required to submit proof of medical coverage prior to enrollment.
This category includes other expenditures such as clothing, personal computer, phone, etc. We estimate students’ miscellaneous expenses to be $1,500-$2,000 per year. However, it is possible to spend far less than this amount for students with conservative spending habits.
Other Fees and Charges
In addition to tuition and room and board fees, there are other expenses that a student will need to plan for:
Auditing fees: $200 per unit
Cap and gown: cost
Damage to University property: cost
ID card replacement: $10 per card
Library overdue fines [per item]: $1 per day, maximum $50
Library lost item replacement fees, $100 per item
Key replacement, $25–$50 per key
Room & board during summer months, if the student wishes to remain on campus, $500 per month
Student Tuition Recovery Fund [STRF] fees, $0.50 per $1,000 institutional charges
Transcript fees, $6 per copy
VIII. Financial Aid
Students accepted into this translation program may apply for an IITBT Sweet Dew Scholarship. IITBT scholarships are granted based on merit and financial need.
In addition to IITBT scholarships, students may also apply for Service Scholarship and University Grants. Students who are awarded a full Service Scholarship are expected to work 13 hours per week (in addition to the three weekly hours of Community Service in the curriculum) in such areas as food service, building maintenance, grounds maintenance, the library, office clerical work, or translation. If a student does not perform his or her Service Scholarship duties in a satisfactory manner, as determined by his or her supervisor(s), the student may be found ineligible for financial assistance (Service Scholarship) from the University in subsequent semester.
Incoming students must complete their Application for Financial Aid within 30 days of receiving the letter of acceptance from the Program.
IX. International Students
Dharma Realm Buddhist University is approved by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Immigration and Customs Enforcement to admit non-immigrant foreign students. However, the Graduate Certificate Program in Buddhist Translation currently does not accept international students. Students who are US citizens or Permanent Residents may enroll. Some types of non-immigrant visas (other than the visitor visa) may qualify. DRBU does not vouch for student status. No fees or charges associated with student visas will be assessed to, collected from, or transmitted on behalf of DRBU students. For further information, contact the Office of Admissions and Financial Aid – 707-621-7000 ext 4200 or by email at firstname.lastname@example.org.